Khorasan province which is located in north east of Iran, covering an area of 313,335 sq.km, is the largest province of the country and includes one fifth of the country's area. The townships of this province are: Esfarayen, Birjand, Taibad, Torbat-e-Jam, Torbat-e-Heydarieh, Chenaran, Khaf, Daregaz, Shirvan, Tabas, Ferdows, Fariman Ghayenat, Ghoochan, Kashmar, Gonabad, Mashad, Nahbandan, Neyshabour, Bardaskan, and Bojnoord.
Mashad is the capital
city of this province in which the Shrine of His Holiness Imam Reza, the eighth Imam of
Shiite, is situated.
From natural features point of view, Khorasan province is divided into two northern and southern sections. The northern part is mountainous which in its lower areas, fertile plains are formed and suitable conditions for agricultural and animal husbandry development are available.
Imam Reza Shrine
The southern part constitutes of low plains with low hills and poor vegetation cover. Khorasan province is located in north temperate zone and has changeable weather as a whole. The temperature of the province increases from north to south, but the annual precipitation decreases. In the Islamic period, Khorasan was divided into four parts, each called in the name of four large cities i.e Neyshaboor, Marve, Harat and Balkh. In the year 652 AD, Arabs came to Iran and residents of Khorasan converted to Islam.
The important natural, cultural and
religious sites and monuments of this township are:
Bazangan lake, Recreational areas of Kooh-Sangi Akhloomad, Torghabeh, Band-e-Golestan (Golestan dam), Shandeese, Jaghargh, Zeshk, Naghandar, Kardeh Dam and Miami, Vakilabad and Mellat parks, Gilas and Garab fountains, Zari, Hendelabad, Mozdooran, Moghan and Kardeh Khorshid palace in Kooh-Sangi, Milakhanjan and Robat Sharaf castle, Ruins of old city of Toos, Kalat-e-Naderi historical aggregate, Tombs of Ferdowsi, Sheikh Tabarsi, Khajeh Abasalt, Nader Shah, Imam Mohammed Ghazali, Khajeh Morad Ravi (famous Iranian Gnostics) and mausoleum of Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi, Meshad mud-brick dome, Meshad Mossalla (place for public prayer), Navab, Soleyman Khan, Ghyasieh (Khargerd) and Mirza Gafar Schools, Goharshad and Imam (formerly: Shah) mosques, Imam Reza Shrine aggregate,Hor-e-Ameli mausoleum, Imamzadeh Mohammed, Imamzadeh Yahya and Khajeh Rabi mausoleum, Haroonieh and Sabz (green) dome.
Statue Of Ferdowsi
In the year 1004 AD. Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi conquered Khorasan and in 1049 AD. Toghrol the First (Saljooghian dynasty) conquered Neyshaboor. Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi fought against Saljooghians and finally Ghaznavi Turks defeated Sultan Sanjar Saljooghi badly. In the year 1161 AD. Khorasan was conquered by kharazm-shahian, simultaneously, due to attacks of Mongols, it was annexed to the territories of Mongol Ilkhanan. In 15th century, independence flag was hoisted by Sarbedaran movement and in 1493 Khorasan was occupied by Amir Teymoor Goorkani and city of Harat was declared as the capital. In 1537 AD. it was possessed by Ozbakans. After the death of Nader Afshar (1791), Khorasan was occupied by Afghans and in Ghajar period, with supporting of Afghans for protection of Indian's borders, finally Paris Treaty was concluded (1903) and Iran was obliged not to interfere in Afghanistan's internal affairs. At this time Khorasan was divided into two parts: the eastern part became England protectorate and the western remained under Iran's rule. As such the most populated part of Khorasan was partitioned from Iran. Khorasan is, however, one of the flourishing provinces of Iran.